Free to Be Aware - HIV Prevention
GET TESTED - June 27 is National HIV Testing Day
THERE ARE TWO WAYS TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF HIV
1. ABSTINANCE - EFFECTIVENESS 100% - Don't have sexual intercourse
2. CONDOMS - EFFECTIVENESS 90%*
CONDOM FACTS AND INFORMATION
- Effective condom materials-latex and polyurethane
- Lubricants-use only water based lubricants with latex condoms. Oil based lubricants, like Vaseline, break down latex and reduce its effectiveness.
- You need to use a new condom every time you have sexual intercourse. Never use the same condom twice.
- Condom Safety-always check the package expiration or manufacture dates. Condoms are sensitive to heat and light exposure. Therefore, do not use a condom if it has become sticky or very dry as this may mean that the condom has deteriorated.
"The main reason that condoms sometimes fail to prevent HIV/STD infection or pregnancy is incorrect or inconsistent use, not the failure of the condom itself. Using oil-based lubricants can weaken the latex, causing the condom to break. Condoms can also be weakened by exposure to heat or sunlight or by age, or they can be torn by teeth or fingernails." **
WHAT IS HIV?
Human - because the virus can only infect human beings. Although similar diseases exist in other animals, such as monkeys and cats, those viruses cannot infect humans nor can HIV infect other animals.
Immunodeficiency - because the virus creates a deficiency with the body's immune system, causing it to fail to work properly.
Virus - because the organism is a virus which is incapable of reproducing by itself; it must use a human cell to reproduce.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that affects certain white blood cells—CD4 T cells—that manage human immune system responses. When these blood cells are damaged, it becomes difficult for people to fight off infections or diseases. This condition is called "HIV disease."
WHAT IS HIV DISEASE?
We tend to think of "disease" in simple terms: infection equals illness. It's a little different with HIV since the virus can cause slow, subtle damage to the immune system long before an infected person will feel ill. Most health care providers use the term "HIV disease" to identify the variety of changes a person may experience, from initial infection to more advanced stages of serious, life-threatening illness. The term describes the medical condition of anyone infected with the virus, regardless of his or her symptoms.
HIV Must Be Present—Infection may only occur if one of the persons involved in an exposure situation is infected with HIV. Some people assume that certain behaviors or exposure situations can cause HIV disease, even if the virus is not present. This is not true.
There Needs to Be Enough Virus—The concentration of HIV determines whether infection will occur. In blood, for example, the virus is very concentrated. A small amount of blood is enough to infect someone. Also, the concentration of virus in blood or other fluids can change, in the same person, over time.
HIV Must Get into the Bloodstream—It is not enough to be in contact with an infected fluid for HIV to be transmitted. Healthy, intact skin does not allow HIV to get into the body.
HIV can enter through an open cut or sore, or through contact with the mucous membranes. Transmission risk is very high when HIV comes in contact with the more porous mucous membranes in the genitals, the anus, and the rectum, which are inefficient barriers to HIV. Transmission is also possible through oral sex because body fluids can enter the bloodstream through cuts in the mouth.
Paths of Infection—HIV can be transmitted through:
- Unprotected vaginal, anal and oral sex
- Direct blood contact, which may occur through needle sharing, transfusions, accidents in health care settings, or certain blood products
- Mother to baby; before or during birth or through breast milk
Infectious Fluids—HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to another through:
- Blood Semen (including pre-seminal fluid)
- Vaginal secretions HIV can also be transmitted through the following bodily secretions, in limited circumstances where there is exposure to large quantities
- Breast milk-expressed through feeding
- Saliva-is NOT considered to be infectious. The only time saliva would pose a risk would be if it had blood present in it. There are no documented cases of HIV transmission through saliva. There is a protein in the mouth that attaches itself to the surface of blood cells and blocks infection by HIV that appears to be present in the mucous membrane in the mouth at a level sufficient enough to reduce the concentration of HIV in saliva to non-infectious levels.
- Urine and Tears - are NOT considered infectious. While HIV has been found in urine and tears, it is not concentrated in an amount sufficient for transmission.
- Sweat, Feces, Vomit - are NOT considered infectious. HIV has never been found in these materials. The only possible risk would be if there was blood present.
HIV TRANSMISSION ROUTES
HIV can enter the body through open cuts or sores and by directly infecting cells in the mucous membranes.
Transmission can happen in the mouth, the eyes, vagina, penis (through the urethra), in the anus and rectum. HIV cannot cross healthy, unbroken skin.
HIV can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, both vaginal and anal. HIV can easily pass through the mucus membranes in the genitals and the rectum, or may pass through cuts and sores.
HIV can also be transmitted through oral sex. Conditions such as bleeding gums and poor oral health increase the risk of transmission and through oral sex.
HIV can be transmitted by contact between infectious fluids and bleeding cuts or open sores in the skin. However, healthy, intact skin does not allow HIV to enter the body, and provides an excellent barrier against the virus.
Sharing Needles—Sharing syringes [needles, works or fits] to inject medicines, hormones, steroids or illegal drugs can pass blood directly from one person's blood stream to another's. It is also a very efficient way to transmit HIV and other blood borne viruses such as Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV).
Tattoos and Piercing—There have been NO documented cases of transmission of HIV by piercing or tattooing. However, there are documented cases of Hepatitis B (HBV) through these routes. Since Hepatitis B and HIV are transmitted by the same activities, there may be a possibility of HIV transmission through tattoos and piercing.
Blood Transfusions—Since March 1985, all blood in the United States has been screened for HIV using the HIV antibody test. This practice has almost eliminated the risk of getting HIV through a blood transfusion in the United States.
Hemophiliacs—Since March 1985, all blood in the United States has been screened for HIV with the HIV antibody test. This practice has almost eliminated the risk of getting HIV through a blood transfusion in the United States. Other Blood Products. Besides whole blood, platelets [red blood cells] have transmitted HIV.
Current blood screening should prevention infection from these products. No other blood products are suspected of transmitting HIV.
Donor Insemination—This is not a regulated industry. It is recommended that donor semen be checked for the presence of HIV. When collecting semen, donors should be tested for HIV antibodies when the sample is taken. The semen should then be frozen. The donor should then be retested three months later to avoid the risk of a "window period" effect. The semen should not be used before the procedure is completed.
Organ Donation—People who are infected with HIV are encouraged not to donate organs or tissue for transplant purposes. There were very few cases of organ or tissue transplant HIV transmission from 1985 until 1994 when new government guidelines were implemented to reduce the risk of transplant transmission. These guidelines require blood from donors be tested for various strains of HIV.
Also, the donor medical history must show no evidence of risk factors or clinical symptoms of HIV infection.
Mother to Infant Transmission—It is possible for a mother who has HIV to pass the virus to her fetus, by exposure to blood and vaginal fluids during birth, or through breast milk during feeding.
Source: Minnesota Aids Project http://www.mnaidsproject.org/learn/basics.htm
* Boston Globe 06.22.03; John Donnelly
** CDC (1999) 'Condoms and their use in preventing HIV infection and other STDs', September